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What is proof of work (PoW)?

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Proof of work, often shortened to PoW, is a consensus mechanism that secures blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Ethereum Classic.

Proof of work (PoW) is a consensus mechanism that relies on a distributed network of computers to reach a consensus. Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency, is a digital token that can be exchanged for value on the blockchain technology.

It was Hal Finney in 2004 who originally presented this concept in digital tokens, and it has since been the foundation for multiple other cryptocurrencies. With PoW, transactions between peers can be processed safely without the need for a central authority.

Knowing PoW helps investors choose the proper currency and crypto investment strategy. But what exactly does proof of work mean, and how does it work to validate transactions on these decentralized platforms? Let's take a deeper look at this foundational cryptocurrency concept!

How does proof of work work in blockchain?

At its core, blockchain proof of work acts as a computational puzzle that must be solved in order to add a new block to the blockchain and validate transactions. Miners on the network compete to be the first to solve this mathematical problem and earn blockchain rewards in the crypto mining process.

The puzzle involves finding a random number called a "nonce" that, when combined with the transactions in the new block and hashed, meets the network's difficulty criteria.

Finding this nonce requires an enormous amount of computational effort. On average, miners must try trillions of nonces per second to solve each proof-of-work puzzle. Adding new miners to the network causes the need for energy to rise dramatically.

This expenditure of energy is what gives proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin their security: to rewrite the blockchain, an attacker would need to control over 50% of the entire network's mining power, a virtually impossible task.

What does proof of work mean in crypto?

Proof of work in blockchain serves two crucial functions: securing the network against cyber attacks and double-spending, while also incentivizing miners to contribute their processing power.

In proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin, miners compete to earn block rewards by burning electricity to randomly generate hashes until they find a valid proof of work for the block.

This "work" acts as proof that the miner expended effort to help secure the network. Valid blocks require very specific hash outputs below the network's difficulty, so the odds of any one miner finding a block can be summed up as a lottery.

This randomness ensures no single entity can take control of block production. Overall, the proof-of-work mechanism underpins the decentralized security of major public blockchains and cryptocurrencies.

proof of work

What is an example of proof of work?

The most prominent example of a blockchain using PoW as its consensus mechanism is Bitcoin. Since its inception in 2009, Bitcoin has secured over $400 billion in value through its mining and reward incentives.

This makes its blockchain one of the most reliably publicly auditable and abundant ledgers in existence. In Bitcoin, miners compete to find a mathematical solution to a cryptographic puzzle referred to as a hash. The fastest miners to find a solution hash are rewarded with new bitcoin.

On average, new blocks are added to the blockchain every 10 minutes through the PoW process. Meanwhile, participants use significant electricity to power the high-powered computer systems needed to mine competitively.

It's estimated that Bitcoin mining now uses more electricity annually than some entire countries. While energy-intensive, PoW mining secures Bitcoin in a decentralized way without trusted third parties.

Why is proof-of-work so popular?

Despite criticisms of its massive energy usage, the PoW consensus has proven popular due to several important properties.

Here are the reasons why proof-of-work is so popular:


By requiring no specialized identities or resources beyond processing power, PoW allows anyone to participate in securing the network.


PoW blockchains resist attacks through their enormous energy expenditure, making rewriting transaction histories incredibly resource-intensive.


The fixed supply and visible cost of production incentivize carefully considering new entries to PoW ledgers.


PoW is an intuitive economic model and was the first proven consensus mechanism allowing immediate mainstream adoption.

PoW kicked off blockchain adoption by launching the immensely popular Bitcoin. This widespread success cemented PoW's role as the de facto standard in the early crypto space.

While alternatives like PoS now exist, PoW remains the most proven consensus mechanism to date for securing billions of dollars in value through energy expenditure alone. This contributes greatly to its persevering popularity despite sustainability concerns.

What is the difference between PoS and PoW?

While both PoW and PoS aim to decentralize block validation, they differ greatly in their approaches.

The key differences between PoS and PoW include:

Resource expenditure

PoW requires massive amounts of electricity to power crypto mining hardware. PoS only requires holding cryptographic assets as collateral.

Participation barriers

PoW has high capital costs for specialized mining equipment, favoring economies of scale. PoS has relatively low barriers to participation through staking.

Security model

PoW relies on energy expenditure, making blockchain rewrites expensive. PoS penalizes invalid blocks by slashing stake collateral.


PoS promises higher transaction throughput by avoiding computational work. PoW has challenges scaling to consumer levels of use.

PoS shifts the resource costs from electricity to merely having collateral crypto assets. This allows faster, more scalable validation while remaining secure.

However, PoW has withstood a decade of attacks validating its security model, while PoS protocols are still maturing. Both aim to decentralize consensus but achieve it through different mechanism design tradeoffs. If you want to explore further comparisons, you can check “proof of work vs. proof of stake”.

Is proof of stake decentralized?

The blockchain consensus mechanism is crucial for maintaining decentralization without central authorities. While PoW leverages competitive crypto mining to secure networks, another consensus protocol gaining popularity is Proof of Stake (PoS).

In PoS systems like Ethereum 2.0, participants validate block transactions according to how many coins they hold. These participants, known as "validators", must deposit or "stake" a certain number of coins to serve this role.

If a validator proposes an invalid block, they may lose part of their stake as a penalty for misbehavior. By design, PoS blockchains strive to be highly decentralized.

For example, in Ethereum 2.0, anyone can become a validator as long as they meet the staking requirements, avoiding many of the economies of scale that lead to mining pool centralization in PoW networks.

Additionally, the likelihood of being randomly selected to validate new blocks is proportional to a participant's stake, further incentivizing decentralization.

Though newer, studies have found PoS protocols promise strong security guarantees and the potential to boost decentralization if participants stake independently.

Overall, it seems PoS and types of proof of stake, such as DPoS, PPoS, and NPoS, validation mechanisms can also achieve consensus in a decentralized manner.

proof of work consensus

Which is better, PoS or PoW?

There is no consensus yet on whether PoW or PoS protocols provide better security or decentralization in the long term. Both approaches involve trade-offs. PoW has withstood extensive real-world testing but faces new challenges around scalability and environmental sustainability as its costs rise.

PoS promises huge efficiency gains but is still an emerging consensus design requiring more validation through practical adoption. Depending on a blockchain's priorities, either PoW or PoS may prove 'better.'

For example, a euro stablecoin like EURK that offers transparent transactions that are fast and secure may prefer PoS for its scalability. Meanwhile, the original Bitcoin can sustain its immutable public ledger through PoW mining.

Ultimately, the market will determine which protocols end up powering the most decentralized, secure, and widely adopted blockchains going forward. Both are likely to coexist, with many blockchains evaluating hybrid consensus designs as the technology improves.

What is safer, PoS or PoW?

Both PoW and PoS blockchains can provide very strong security, given the well-designed protocols and network effects supporting them.

PoS blockchains may have some safety advantages currently:

Environmental risks

Issues like concentrated mining operations and potential future energy crises pose external hazards for PoW networks.


As blockchains implement techniques like periodic coin shuffling, stake pooling, and moderate fees, PoS systems are becoming more decentralized over the long run versus PoW mining pools.

Collusion risks

While still difficult, bribing or threatening a small number of key PoS validators may be safer than launching an all-out hardware attack against a PoW network's hash power.

On-chain slashing

PoS protocols can "slash" misbehaving validators by confiscating their stake, while misbehaving PoW miners can more easily avoid penalties.

However, PoW protocols have withstood attacks and fluctuations over decades, proving their robustness. Overall, both approaches can be made very secure through continued refinement, with the absolute "safest" solution dependent on specific implementation and community support in each case.

The bottom line

PoW and PoS represent two different consensus approaches for maintaining blockchain security and decentralization without central authorities. PoW, through mining, pioneered this challenge and remains dominant due to its unparalleled real-world testing.

However, PoS offers an appealing alternative focused on efficiency and lowering participation barriers. With both protocols rapidly evolving, only continued adoption and experimentation will reveal their strengths and weaknesses as the technologies progress.

Given its strategic priorities around security, speed, and stability for its users, the stablecoin EURK that Cryptobunq securely issues and audits is well-positioned to contribute to this evolution.

EURK is a reliable stablecoin, and it offers efficiency, security, transparency, and liquidity. You can also easily make crypto exchanges and crypto payments if you buy EURK. Become a partner today and start to benefit your business with the euro-backed stablecoin, EURK!

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